06.04.2016       Выпуск 120 (04.04.2016 - 10.04.2016)       Статьи

Пересоздание замыканий в Python syntax clojure

Замыкания - простой и мощный инструмент для сокрытия переменных в локальном Scope между вызовами функций. Статья описывает способ пересоздания замыканий.


Экспериментальная функция:

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Since the release of Python 2.2 in 2001, all Python functions have closed over bindings in outer scopes. Before this release variables referenced from outer scopes had to be passed in as arguments. A common workaround to this limiting behavior was to set these at function definition time with keyword arguments:

#!/usr/bin/env python2.0
def find(self, name):
    return filter(lambda x, name=name: x == name, self.list_attribute)

Since 2001 this workaround is no longer necessary and the references to name in the body of the lambda function are resolved using the current value in the outer find function:

#!/usr/bin/env python2.2
def find(self, name):
    return filter(lambda x: x == name, self.list_attribute)

However Python functions could not modify these bindings: although an object referred to by a variable from an outer scope can be modified, like appending an item to a list,

#!/usr/bin/env python2
def get_odds(candidates):
    odds = []
    def add_if_odd(x):
        if x % 2 == 1:
          l.append(x)  # This type of modification is fine.
    for x in candidates:
    return odds

a function could not change to which object a variable from an outer scope referred.

#!/usr/bin/env python2
def largest_odd(candidates):
    highest = 1
    def replace_if_odd(x):
        if x % 2 == 1:
           highest = x  # Reassigning highest does not work!
                        # This creates a local variable instead.
    for x in sorted(candidates):
    return highest

One of my favorite changes in Python 3 is the addition of the nonlocal keyword. Described by PEP 31041 as “access to names in outer scopes” and in other places as “rebinding closures” and “read/write closures,” this allows functions to rebind variables in outer scopes. By marking a variable name nonlocal we specify that when that variable name is assigned to in this function, we mean the already existing binding from outside this function. The nonlocal keyword works analogously to the global keyword which allows reassignment of global variables in Python 2 and 3.

#!/usr/bin/env python3
def largest_odd(candidates):
    highest = 1
    def replace_if_odd(x):
        nonlocal highest  # Nonlocal only exists in python 3.
        if x % 2 == 1:  # Because of the previous line
           highest = x  # this rebinds the outer highest.
    for x in sorted(candidates):
    return highest

I think this is a great addition that helps me write code the way I would in JavaScript or a Lisp. But despite this lack of rebinding closures in Python 2 frustrating some programmers coming from these and other languages, it doesn’t seem to be a big deal to Python programmers. The feature doesn’t make the top 11 of Aaron Meurer’s top 10 awesome features of Python that you can’t use because you refuse to upgrade to Python 3.

Folks who write Python code, what do you think of the new nonlocal keyword in Python 3?

— Thomas Ballinger (@ballingt) January 5, 2016

Here are some thoughts on why this situation doesn’t come up very much in Python and how people worked around not having it in Python 2.

Global scope isn’t

Python 2 functions can rebind some variables: the module-level variables known as globals. global, available in Python 2, marks a variable name in a function as referring to the global variable in that module. This provides some fraction of the power of full closures since every Python function closes over the “global” variables of the module in which it was defined.

I also find I write less local functions in Python because of the built-in module system than I do in JavaScript, and these top-level functions have no enclosing scope besides the global scope to use nonlocal on.

Community norm: no data hiding

An emblematic use of closures in JavaScript is the protection of private data, but in Python data privacy isn’t enforced.

While using a closure to hide data is a common pattern in JavaScript,

function createPerson(name){
    var age = 10;
    return {
        birthday : function(){
            age = age + 1;
        greet : function(){
            console.log("Hi, I'm", name, "and I'm", age, "years old");

var me = createPerson('Tom')

that same pattern in Python 3 would be considered pretty weird code:

#!/usr/bin/env python3
class Person(object):

    def create(name):
        age = 10
        p = Person()
        def birthday():
            nonlocal age
            age = age + 1

        def greet():
            print("Hi, I'm", name, "and I'm", age, "years old")

        p.birthday = birthday
        p.greet = greet
        return p

me = Person.create('Tom')

Mutable object hack

Writing to a closed over variable is useful for producing a callback which records somewhere that it was called. Here’s a signal handing example in Python 3:

#!/usr/bin/env python3
from signal import signal, SIGWINCH

def notice_window():
    window_size_changed = False

    def handler(signum, frame):
        nonlocal window_size_changed
        window_size_changed = True

    signal(SIGWINCH, handler)

    while True:
        if window_size_changed:
            window_size_changed = False
            print('window size has changed')

The most direct translation of the above is to use the simplest possible mutable object to store the boolean window_size_changed value. Read-only closures with mutable objects seem to provide an (ugly) equivalent to full closures:

#!/usr/bin/env python2
from signal import signal, SIGWINCH

def notice_window_with_mutable_object():
    window_size_changed = [False]

    def handler(signum, frame):
        window_size_changed[0] = True

    signal(SIGWINCH, handler)

    while True:
        if window_size_changed[0]:
            window_size_changed[0] = False
            print('window size has changed')

This works in every case I can think of, but is ugly because the list only obfuscates what’s going on. When I see this pattern in Python 2 code I wish it were Python 3 so it could be fixed, but it seems pretty rare.

Mutability and method binding:

It’s much more common to find a function that could rebind an outer variable, but instead mutates an object more descriptive than a one-element list.

When passing in a callback to a function a Python method is particularly convenient because that method will be bound to that object at attribute lookup time. This more clearly communicates what state might be modified because methods of objects often change the state of the objects to which the belong.

#!/usr/bin/env python2
class Noticer:
    def __init__(self):
        self.window_size_changed = False

    def handler(self, signum, frame):
        self.window_size_changed = True

def notice_window_with_method():
    noticer = Noticer()
    signal(SIGWINCH, noticer.handler)
    while True:
        if noticer.window_size_changed:
            noticer.window_size_changed = False
            print('window size has changed')

Less callback-oriented interfaces

Python codebases seem to prefer passing objects that conform to informal interfaces to passing functions directly, using attributes of that object for the state being changed.

Further reading:

Thanks Julia Evans and Lindsey Kuper for comments and corrections.

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