16.03.2019       Выпуск 273 (11.03.2019 - 17.03.2019)       Статьи

Django Authentication — Login, Logout and Password Change/Reset Django

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In this tutorial, you'll learn how to easily add a complete authentication system to your Django application with login, logout and password change and reset functionalities.

We'll be using Django with a MySQL database.

We'll also be using django-crispy-forms and Bootstrap 4 for styling the application UI.

Prerequisites

Let's start with the prerequisites for this tutorial. In order to follow the tutorial step by step, you'll need a few requirements, such as:

  • Basic knowledge of Python,
  • Working knowledge of Django (django-admin.py and manage.py),
  • A recent version of Python 3 installed on your system (the latest version is 3.7),
  • MySQL database installed on your system.

We will be using pip and venv which are bundled as modules in recent versions of Python so you don't actually need to install them unless you are working with old versions.

If you are ready, lets go started!

Creating a Virtual Environment

A virtual environment allows you to isolate your current project dependencies from the rest of packages installed globally on your system or in the other virtual environments. You can either use virtualenv which needs to be installed on your system or the venv module available as a module in recent versions of Python 3.

Go to your command terminal and run:

Next, activate the virtual environment using:

Note: please note that on Windows, you need to use source env/Scripts/activate in order to activate your virtual environment.

After activating the environment, you need to proceed by installing Django using pip:

If the framework is successfully installed, you can now use the Django management commands to create and work with your project.

We'll also need to install mysql-client using:

Creating a MySQL Database

We'll be using a MySQL database. In your terminal invoke the mysql client using the following command:

Enter your MySQL password and hit Enter.

Next, run the following SQL statement to create a database:

Creating a Django Project

Let's now create the project using django-admin.py. In your terminal, run the following command:

Django has an ORM that abstracts dircet database operations and supports SQLite which is configured by default in the project so we'll be using a SQLite database for this tutorial.

If you need to use PostgreSQL, MySQL or any other database management system, you'll have to install it first then open the settings.py of your project and add the database address and credentials inside the DATABASES object.

Here is the configuration for mysql:

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.mysql', 
        'NAME': 'mydb',
        'USER': 'root',
        'PASSWORD': 'YOUR_DB_PASSWORD',
        'HOST': 'localhost',   
        'PORT': '3306',
    }    
}

Make sure to replace YOUR_DB_PASSWORD with your own MySQL password.

Adding django-crispy-forms

We'll be using Bootstrap 4 for styling the authentication forms, so you need to install it using pip:

Next, open the settings.py file and add the application to the installed apps:

Next, add the following setting which sets Bootstrap 4 as the default styling framework for django-crispy-forms:

Creating the accounts Application

Apps are the Django way of organizing a project. Think of them as modules.

Let's encapsulate the authentication logic needed in our project into an accounts application. You obviously use any valid name you see fit.

Go to your terminal and navigate inside your project's folder if you have not done so:

Next, create the application using manage.py:

manage.py is another management script for Django that exists in your root project's folder. It provides a nice wrapper for the most used Django management commands.

The previous command will create a Django application with a default file structure. To make this app part of your project, you need to open the settings.py file and add it to the INSTALLED_APPS array:

That's it, you can now create your database and run your Django development server using the following commands:

$ python manage.py migrate
$ python manage.py runserver

You can use your browser to navigate to the localhost:8000 address in order to see you web application up and running.

The auth Built-In Application

The auth application is a built-in authentication system in Django that allows developers to add authentication to their apps without re-inventing the wheel trying to implement the base functionality from scratch.

The Django authentication app provides the following functionalities out of the box:

  • Login via the LoginView class view,
  • Logout via the LogoutView class view,
  • Password reset via the PasswordResetView class view,
  • Password change via the PasswordChangeView class view,

You only need to provide templates to implement these functions in your application.

For registering users, you need to create your view and template.

You need to have the django.contrib.auth app in the INSTALLED_APPS of the settings.py file which is the case by default.

Next create the urls.py file in your accounts app and add the following code:

from django.contrib.auth import views
from django.urls import path

urlpatterns = [
]

Login Users Using LoginView

You can login users in your Django application using the LoginView class-based view. In your accounts/urls.py file add the following path:

 urlpatterns = [
    path('login/', views.LoginView.as_view(), name='login'),

You simply use the as_view() method of LoginView to return a callback object that can be assigned as a view function to the path() function.

Next, you need to provide a template for your login view. Create a templates folder in the root of your accounts application and add a base.html file with the following code:

<!doctype  html>
<html  lang="en">
<head>
<link  rel="stylesheet"  href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.0.0/css/bootstrap.min.css"  integrity="sha384-Gn5384xqQ1aoWXA+058RXPxPg6fy4IWvTNh0E263XmFcJlSAwiGgFAW/dAiS6JXm"  crossorigin="anonymous">
<title>Django Authentication Example</title>
</head>
<body>
  <div  class="container">
    <div  class="row justify-content-center">
      <div  class="col-4">
      <h1  class="text-center">Django Authentication Example</h1>
      {% block main %}
      {% endblock %}
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
</body>
</html>

We first import Bootstrap 4 in our base HTML template. We then create a container <div> a title and a main block where Django render the other parts of our templates.

Next, create a templates/registration folder and the the login.html template with the following code:

{% extends  'base.html' %}
{% load crispy_forms_tags %}

{% block main %}
<div class="card">
<div class="card-body">
<h4 class="card-title">Log in to your account</h4>

<form method="post">
{% csrf_token %}
<input type="hidden" name="next" value="{{ next }}">

{{ form|crispy }}

<button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary btn-block">Log in</button>
</form>
</div>
</div>
{% endblock %}

We extend the previous base template, we load crispy_forms_tags and then we override the main block to add our login form.

Next, we create an HTML form with a POST method and render the form fields using `. Thecrispy` filter applies Bootstrap styles to the individual fields.

csrf_token adds the field for CSRF protection to out login form.

We Also add a hidden form field that holds the next URL that will be used by Django to redirect the user to a next page when he's successfully logged in. By default it redirects the accounts/profile URL.

Setting the Login Redirect URL

You can set the next URL or the login redirect URL via the LOGIN_REDIRECT_URL setting. Open the settings.py file and add:

For testing the login view, you can create a user using the manage.py createsuperuser command from your terminal.

Note: Once you are logged in, you will be redirected to the /accounts/profile URL.

This is a screenshot of the login form styled with Bootstrap 4:

Django login form

Logout Users Using LogoutView

You can logout users in your application using the LogoutView class-based view. In your accounts.py file, add the /logout path and link it with a callable view of LogoutView:

   path('logout/', views.LogoutView.as_view(), name='logout'),

Again we use the as_view() method to return a callable object from the LogoutView class.

Next, you need to create a registration/logged_out.html with the following code:

{% extends 'base.html' %}
{% block main %}

<p>You are logged out!</p>
<a  href="{% url 'login' %}">Log in again</a>

{% endblock %}

This is a screenshot of the logged-out done view:

Django logout done

Reset Passwords Using PasswordResetView, PasswordResetDoneView, PasswordResetConfirmView and PasswordResetCompleteView

You can enable your users to reset their passwords using many views:

  • PasswordResetView,
  • PasswordResetDoneView,
  • PasswordResetConfirmView
  • PasswordResetCompleteView

In your accounts/urls.py file, add the following paths:

path('password-reset/', views.PasswordResetView.as_view(), name='password_reset'),
path('password-reset/done/', views.PasswordResetDoneView.as_view(), name='password_reset_done'),
path('reset/<uidb64>/<token>/', views.PasswordResetConfirmView.as_view(), name='password_reset_confirm'),
path('reset/done/', views.PasswordResetCompleteView.as_view(), name='password_reset_complete'),

Next, you need to add a registration/password_reset_form.html template with the following code:

{% extends 'base.html' %}
{% load crispy_forms_tags %}

{% block main %}
<div  class="card">
<div  class="card-body">
<h4  class="card-title">Reset your password</h4>
<form  method="post">
{% csrf_token %}
<input  type="hidden"  name="next"  value="{{ next }}">
{{ form|crispy }}

<button  type="submit"  class="btn btn-primary btn-block">Reset</button>
</form>
</div>
</div>
</div>
{% endblock %}

In the same way, you need to add the password_reset_confirm.html, password_reset_done.html, password_reset_email.html and password_reset_complete.html templates.

This is a screenshot of the password reset form styled with Bootstrap 4:

Django password reset form

Changing Passwords Using PasswordChangeView and PasswordChangeDoneView

You can enable your users to change their passwords via the PasswordChangeView and PasswordChangeDoneView class-based views.

In your accounts/views.py file, add the following paths:

path('password-change/', views.PasswordChangeView.as_view(), name='password_change'),
path('password-change/done/', views.PasswordChangeDoneView.as_view(), name='password_change_done'),

Next create a registration/password_change_form.html template and add the following code:

{% extends 'base.html' %}
{% load crispy_forms_tags %}

{% block main %}
<div  class="card">
<div  class="card-body">
<h4  class="card-title"> Change your password</h4>

<form  method="post">
{% csrf_token %}
{{ form|crispy }}

<button  type="submit"  class="btn btn-success">Change password </button>
</form>
</div>
</div>
{% endblock %}

You also need to add password_change_done.html template.

This is a screenshot of the password change form:

Django password change form

Registering Users

For registering users, the Django built-in auth application doesn't provide a ready view function or class-based view so you need to provide your own your own custom implementation.

Importing the URLs in your Projects' urls.py

You have added the various urls for implementing authentication in your web application in the accounts application but they can not be used until you add them to the project's level urls.py file .

First, this is the complete source of the accounts/urls.py file:

from django.contrib.auth import views
from django.urls import path

urlpatterns = [
    path('login/', views.LoginView.as_view(), name='login'),
    path('logout/', views.LogoutView.as_view(), name='logout'),
    path('password-change/', views.PasswordChangeView.as_view(), name='password_change'),
    path('password-change/done/', views.PasswordChangeDoneView.as_view(), name='password_change_done'),
    path('password-reset/', views.PasswordResetView.as_view(), name='password_reset'),
    path('password-reset/done/', views.PasswordResetDoneView.as_view(), name='password_reset_done'),
    path('reset/<uidb64>/<token>/', views.PasswordResetConfirmView.as_view(), name='password_reset_confirm'),
    path('reset/done/', views.PasswordResetCompleteView.as_view(), name='password_reset_complete'),
]

Next, open the urls.py that exists in the root of your project and use the include() function to import the accounts urls:

from django.urls import path, include

urlpatterns = [
    path('accounts/', include('accounts.urls'))
]

Now, go ahead and start your development server. You can use your authentication URLs under the /accounts path:

  • http://127.0.0.1:8000/accounts/login/ for login users,
  • http://127.0.0.1:8000/accounts/logout/ for logout users,
  • http://127.0.0.1:8000/accounts/password-change/ for changing passwords,
  • http://127.0.0.1:8000/accounts/password-reset/ for resetting passwords.

Conclusion

Throughout this tutorial we've seen how we can easily add the login, logout and password reset and change features in our Django apps using the auth application without re-inventing the wheel.

We've also used Bootstrap 4 and django-crispy-forms to style the various forms for login, password change and reset.






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